¿Que son los oligosacáridos ?

futas y verduras.jpgLos oligosacáridos son carbohidratos de cadena corta (grado de polimerización de 2 a 7) encontrados en forma natural en frutas, verduras, leche y miel. Son considerados importantes debido a sus propiedades biológicas y fisiológicas, como ingredientes funcionales, particularmente por su actividad prebiótica.

 

Los oligosacáridos se encuentran en forma importante en la leche materna, favoreciendo el desarrollo de una flora intestinal especial, bifidobacterias, en el intestino del niño, que los protege de los gérmenes dañinos. Por ello algunos oligosacáridos son agregados a alimentos para favorecer el desarrollo de una flora bacteriana saludable, contribuyendo además a la reducción de la incidencia del cáncer de estómago producido por Helycobacter pylori.

 

Se caracterizan por ser solubles y exhibir dulzor, el cual decrece con el largo de la cadena. La solubilidad en agua y las propiedades gelificantes, permiten utilizar a estos carbohidratos como sustitutos de la grasa. Estas propiedades, junto con los efectos fisiológicos: bajo valor energético, anticancerígeno, efecto prebiótico, mejorador de la absorción de minerales, anticariogénico, actividad antioxidante, potencian su incorporación en alimentos que normalmente contienen cantidades despreciables de tales nutrientes

 

oligosacáridos de grado alimenticio son manufacturados por procesos químicos y enzimáticos que envuelven diversas transformaciones sobre el enlace glicosídico, tales como alargamiento o acortamiento de la cadena carbonada o por cambio de la estructura de algún monosacárido en la molécula.

Se obtienen generalmente desde la hemicelulosa de materias vegetales, la cual varía en cantidad y calidad según la composición de la pared celular.

 

Su producción de oligosacáridos consiste básicamente en la extracción acuosa de estructuras tales como los polixilanos y la subsiguiente hidrólisis a compuestos de menor grado de polimerización.

 

Dentro de las fuentes de interés nacional para la obtención de este tipo de productos, se encuentran la achicoria, la alcachofa,la cozeta agotada de remolacha y diversos materiales vegetales como resdiduos de la agroindustria debido a su elevado contenido de fibra, particularmente hemicelulosa.alcachofa.jpg

 

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Comentarios

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10  :)

 

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que tipo de polimerizacion tienen los oligosacaridos?

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